This notion evolved a lot through centuries and cultures to finally designate human being from birth until adulthood. But this conception of the child was wide and the age of the majority varied from a culture to an another.
he Convention on the Rights of the Child of 1989 defines more precisely the term “child”:
“A child is any human being below the age of eighteen years, unless under the law applicable to the child, majority is attained earlier”
The idea, through this definition and all the texts concerning child welfare, is that the child is a human being with rights and dignity.
What characterizes the child, it is his youth and vulnerability. Indeed, the child is growing, a future adult, who has no means to protect himself.
So, the child has to be the object of a particular interest and a specific protection. In this perspective, texts proclaiming the protection of the child and his rights were adopted.